Intravenous (IV) Ketamine
IV ketamine is as an anesthetic medication that is also used for treatment resistant depression. Numerous clinical trials have demonstrated that IV ketamine has rapid and robust antidepressant effects in individuals who continue to suffer from depression, despite trying numerous antidepressant medications and psychotherapy. IV ketamine is used 'off label' for depression, meaning that it has not been Health Canada approved for this specific indication.
Intranasal (IN) Esketamine
Esketamine nasal spray is a Health Canada and FDA-approved treatment for treatment resistant depression. Esketamine is an add-on treatment, specifically approved for use in addition to an antidepressant medication (e.g., SSRIs/SNRIs) for individuals that have not responded to two or more antidepressants.